Former Trump Economic Adviser Gary Cohn Joins Ibm As Vice Chairman

Low inflation led to solid real wage gains in 2015 and 2016 and to a lesser degree in 2019, but as low-wage workers were laid off in the recession, the composition of employed workers shifted toward those with higher earnings, inflating average earnings. The return of some lower-wage workers to jobs is reversing some of that shift and bringing down average wage gains.

As the 2009 Recovery Act’s temporary fiscal stimulus measures expired, the primary responsibility for nurturing the economic recovery fell to the Federal Reserve. The pace of wage growth quickened in 2015 and into 2016 but subsequently stalled below 3 percent until 2018, when it began edging up again. The upward trend in earnings growth for all employees stalled in 2019, however, despite very low unemployment. In November 2020, average hourly earnings of all employees on private payrolls were 4. 4 percent higher than a year earlier; earnings of non-management employees were up 4. 5 percent.

In its Global Economic Prospects report, the bank projected that global potential growth — which assumes the economy operating at full employment and capacity — will slow to 1. 9% a year from 2020 to 2029. The global economy could be heading for “a decade of disappointing growth outcomes” after the Covid-19 pandemic triggered one of the worst economic recessions in history, said the World Bank.

Rapid trade growth may well act as a transmitter of economic stimulus around the globe and a vehicle of continued recovery, particularly if enhanced by additional efforts to reduce barriers and expand trading opportunities further. Recognition of the long term benefits of expanded trade, as well as the positive role trade can play in the current economic recovery are central factors reflected in the Administration’s trade policy. The United States economy is a powerful engine of wealth and prosperity driven by free enterprise and innovation. Despite this, millions of hard-working Americans struggle to get ahead or save for the future, and the federal government’s poor fiscal health leaves us ill equipped to protect those left behind. BPC works to find solutions to these problems, from strengthening retirement security, to securing economic opportunities for the future, and dealing with our nation’s exploding debt. Our goal is to help policymakers remove obstacles to economic growth and improve shared prosperity for all.

Pew Research Center conducted this study to understand Americans’ assessments of their personal financial situation during the current period of economic slowdown and high unemployment rates caused by the coronavirus outbreak. Everyone who took part is a member of Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel, an online survey panel that is recruited through national, random sampling of residential addresses.

If lots of people who expect to be going back to work when it is safe and pandemic-control measures are relaxed are recorded as not actively looking, true unemployment could be undercounted and the rise in the unemployment rate could be muted. The employment-to-population ratio might then more accurately reflect the extent of joblessness. The sharp rise in unemployment and discouragement over the prospects of finding a job in the Great Recession caused the labor force participation rate to fall sharply. The Fed began to lower its target for the federal funds rate in 2008 as the economy began to weaken, and it continued to cut rates as the financial crisis worsened and unemployment rose, until the federal funds rate was effectively zero by the end of 2008.

The relatively modest pace of job growth in the first years of the expansion kept unemployment quite high for some time after economic activity picked up. This initial persistence of high unemployment was similar to but more extreme than what happened at the start of the two previous expansions. The pattern in all three, however, is quite different from the sharp decline in unemployment at the start of most earlier expansions, including the expansion following the severe recession. In contrast, government employment in the three expansions preceding the Great Recession accounted for 13 percent ( ), 10 percent ( ), and 25 percent ( ) of each expansion’s employment gains over the level of employment at the peak of the previous expansion. In each case, state and local government job growth was the major contributor. The jobs deficit at the start of the expansion was much larger than those at the start of the previous two expansions, and it took a long time simply to get back to the level of payroll employment at the start of the recession. That said, payroll employment growth was somewhat better than in the expansion, and it went on much longer.


For a half century prior to the Great Recession, actual GDP, which is determined by the demand for goods and services, fluctuated in a relatively narrow range around CBO’s estimate of what the economy was capable of supplying on a sustainable, non-inflationary basis. Actual GDP fell below potential in recessions and temporarily rose above it in booms. The Great Recession created what at the time was an unusually large and long-lasting gap between actual and potential GDP.

The survey is weighted to be representative of the U. S. adult population by gender, race, ethnicity, partisan affiliation, education and other categories. While the recovery appeared to be faltering in 2015, it regained momentum in the second half of 2016 and economic growth trended upward, with GDP 3. 2 percent higher in the second quarter of 2018 than in the same quarter a year earlier. The growth rate trended down thereafter, however, and GDP grew just 2. 3 percent between the fourth quarter of 2018 and the fourth quarter of 2019; by the spring of 2020, the longest expansion in U. S. history was over. Contrary to President Trump’s claims, a trade deficit is neither a sign of economic weakness nor under a President’s control.

Nonfarm payroll employment fell more sharply in the Great Recession than in prior recent recessions. In contrast to the rapid bounce-back in employment at the start of the 1980s expansion, the turnaround in the labor market trailed the revival of economic activity marking the beginning of the three most recent expansions. Recent job gains have been large by historical standards but the jobs deficit has also been large and a large jobs deficit remains.

Florida’s projected 2. 9% job growth rate, near 5% boost in real gross state product and a “robust” housing market offer “plenty of reasons to be cautiously optimistic” about the state’s 2021 economic outlook, according to public-spending watchdog Florida TaxWatch. On November 6, 2020 the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported the U. S. economy added 638, 000 jobs and unemployment fell to 6. 9% in October 2020.

This “output gap” generated substantial excess unemployment and underemployment and idle productive capacity among businesses. Black or African American unemployment is persistently higher — roughly twice as high on average over time — than white unemployment. The difference between the two rates typically narrows when the economy is particularly strong and widens in recessions. Across data that go back to 1972, however, Black unemployment in the best of times is not much better than white unemployment in the worst of times. These distinctions have become blurred in the current situation, because the number of people receiving unemployment insurance benefits, which normally requires that one actively search for a job, has been expanded greatly under the March CARES Act. How people answer the survey question of whether they are unemployed and looked for a job recently will determine whether they are classified as unemployed, marginally attached, or not in the labor force.